Copyright, Terms of Use,
Reproduction, etc...

The Papyri Pages is a privately supported, non-commercial Web site which focuses on topics relating to ancient Egyptian papyri and the history and archaeology of "books" and writing in general. It is owned and maintained by Theodore Bernhardt and is not currently affiliated with any institution or corporation. The materials (images, graphics, texts, descriptions, translations, drawings, etc.) provided on these Web pages are intended for research and educational purposes only.

By using this site, you agree to all terms of use. If you do not agree to these terms of use please do not use the site.
We reserve the right, at our discretion, to change, modify, add, or remove portions of these terms at any time. Please check these terms periodically for changes. 

Although, great care has been taken in the preparation of the materials presented, no representation and/or warranties either expressed or implied with respect to the accuracy and/or completeness of the information or materials contained on these Web pages is/are made. No liability is assumed for incidental, consequential or other damages in connection with the use of any information or materials presented.

Site Links (links to other sites) are provided as a service to our visitors for convenience and informational/educational purposes only. They do not constitute an endorsement or an approval by the Papyri Pages of any of the products, services or opinions of the organization, corporation or individual. The accuracy, legality and content of these external sites or subsequent links are not the responsibility of the Papyri Pages. Please contact the specific site for answers to questions regarding its content. Any questions, comments, or requests to remove, modify, and/or add a site listing to the Site Links section can be sent to the

Rights / Reproduction of Images / Use of Materials

The images, graphics, texts, descriptions, design,  layout, and other materials presented on the Papyri Pages are the property of Theodore Bernhardt and are copyrighted.  All rights to the site are reserved. All items presented in the on-line exhibit, unless otherwise stated, are from the Bernhardt Collection. See below for use of materials.

The materials on this Web site have been made available for use in research, teaching, and private study. For these purposes, you may reproduce (print, make photocopies, or download) materials from this Web site without prior permission, on the condition that you provide proper attribution (See Citation Format below.) of the source in/on all copies.   To maintain the authenticity of the information presented, it is expressly requested that texts, descriptions, and/or image from the Papyri Pages should not be modified or altered in any way, or if modified,  that any changes or modifications are clearly noted/labeled.

The various articles, descriptions and texts presented, unless otherwise stated, were written by Theodore Bernhardt. 

Articles from other sources are either from material now in the public domain in the United States or permission has been obtained.  Any editing or omissions will be noted. The comments and opinions expressed in any of the articles from other sources are solely those of the author. According to U.S. Copyright Law, all texts issued before 1923 are now in the public domain. If any copyright has been infringed, this was unintentional. Notification of copyright infringement will result in the immediate removal of the item in question until its status is resolved.

Citation Format 

Manuscript or Artifact Citation:  

To cite a a manuscript or artifact image from the exhibit list the item name/title and author/creator (if known) or description, object date, place of origin, (object measurements and/or materials can also be included) from the Bernhardt Collection (Item Inventory Number, if given), as in the following example:

Arabic Papyrus, early 8th century AD, Egypt, from the Bernhardt Collection

Reference or Bibliographical Citing

To cite the Papyri Pages Web site in a bibliography, list it with the URL, and the month, day and year you accessed it  (some style manuals now include the date the page or site was last updated in the listing), as in the following example:

Bernhardt, Theodore (ed.), The Papyri Pages,, May 1, 2006.

To cite a specific article or page in a bibliography, list the name of the article or page, the name of the site with the specific page's URL, and the month, day and year you accessed it (some style manuals now include the date the page or site was last updated in the listing), as in the following example:
Bernhardt, Theodore, "The Origin and Manufacture of Papyrus," The Papyri Pages, , May 1, 2006.

Linking to This Site.

Links to this Web site are greatly appreciated.  Prior permission is not required to include a link to any of the pages at this site.

However, ALL PRESENTED MATERIAL including images, graphic elements, texts, descriptions, design layout, and other materials on these pages are copyrighted and use in whole or in part, or in modified form, for commercial purposes, publication, broadcast, mirroring, derivative works, and anything that does not fall under "fair use" without prior permission is prohibited. Additionally, it is inappropriate to embed a portion/page from this site internal to your own, since this obscures the nature of this Web publication. If you have educational reasons and wish to do so, please contact us at the E-mail address below.

The Welcome Page URL is

We do appreciate hearing from anyone linking to this site or using using our resources (please send e-mail to

For information about U.S. Copyright law please refer to The Copyright Law of the United States - Title 17 United States Code.

Please send any questions, comments, or requests for permission to use materials from this site to:

The Papyri Pages
Copyright © 1998-2017 by Theodore Bernhardt.
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