About This Site
The Papyri Pages focus on topics relating
to ancient Egyptian papyri and the history and archaeology of "books"
and writing in general.
The target audience includes anyone, from the seasoned scholar
to the entheaustic amateur, with an interest in
ancient manuscripts, palaeography and/or the history of
books and writing in general.
Over 300 Site Links are provided as a service to our visitors
for convenience and informational/educational purposes.
The main focus of the listed sites is on those which provide
access to images of ancient manuscripts (especially Egyptian papyri).
These are supplemented by sites concerned with related topics
including: Palaeography, languages, texts (ancient, classical, etc. in
the original language or translation) and a few Archaeology/Egyptology sites.
In addition, European and Asian manuscripts and printed books, papermaking
and paper history are also included.
At present, epigraphy and cuneiform tablets and are not included.
The subject of ancient manuscripts and the history of books and
writing in general, encompasses a vast range of topics and cuts across
a wide variety of disciplines. We have tried to select links to sites
which provide "useful" information and which closely relate to some
aspect of manuscripts and/or books or provide links to related supplementary
materials (languages, history, Egyptology, archaeology, etc.). Commercial sites
have generally been avoided. Categorizing an individual site can
sometimes be difficult, for many sites often contain a mixture of
things. Generally, a site is only listed under one or two main categories.
Any theological and/or ideological viewpoints expressed by any of the
listed external sites are solely those of the individual site.
Listing of a site in the Site Links section does not constitute an
endorsement or an approval by the Papyri Pages of any of the products,
services or opinions of the organization, corporation or
individual. The accuracy, legality and content of these external sites or subsequent
links are not the responsibility of the Papyri Pages.
New Web sites pop-up all the time and old ones disappear or change addresses
without warning. Keeping all the links in the Site Links section current
is a never-ending task. Have you found a dead link or want to suggest a site for
inclusion in the Site Links section of this site? Send an e-mail to
Currently, the Site Links section is undergoing a major renovation. It is
being being reorganized and expanded.
The items presented in the exhibit were selected from the Bernhardt collection, a small private collection of rare books, manuscripts, and antiquities. The papyri presented in this exhibit are the first papyri from a private collection and the sixth or seventh overall collection of papyri to made available on the World Wide Web.
The images presented in the exhibit were scanned from photographs of or the actual objects themselves. A Corel Hijaak Pro scanner and a Visioneer 4400 USB scanner have been used. Corel Hijaak Pro, PaperPort and MGI PhotoSuite III image manipulation software have been used in the editing and/or enhancement of the images. Some of the backgrounds were created by manipulating images using
XV software. Additionally, OLYMPUS Master digital photo managemnet software and an Olympus CAMMEDIA D-595 Zoom camera have been utilized for some images.
A few image files are fairly large (over 100 K) and take a while to
load or during heavy traffic times don't always load at all. If you have problems, try reloading the page or visiting during an off hour.
At present, there are a limited number of brief articles
relating to various aspects of the items
presented in the exhibit. New and more detailed articles
are currently in preparation, as well as, a selection of articles from
other sources (
generally public domain materials). Articles from other sources will be presented in a manner
close to the original source material. Any editing or omissions will be noted. The various articles, unless
otherwise stated, were written by Theodore Bernhardt.
To cite the Papyri Pages Web site in a bibliography, list it with the URL, and the month, day and year you accessed it, as in the following example:
Bernhardt, Theodore (ed.), The Papyri Pages, http://members.triopod.com/~papyri/index.html,
August 1, 2006.
To cite a specific article or page in a bibliography, list the name of the article or page, the name of the site with the specific page's URL, and the month, day and year you accessed it, as in the following example:
Bernhardt, Theodore, "The Origin and Manufacture of Papyrus,"
The Papyri Pages, http://members.tripod.com/~papyri/texts/papyrus.html ,
August 1, 2006.
Article Links is a small changing selection of links to articles from
various sites on the Internet focusing on topics relating to papyri,
papyrology, and related subjects. The topics will change periodically.
What's New ?
For those who are really interested in all the changes, page additions
and page deletions which occur to this site as it evolves, they are
dutifully recorded. They can be accessed via the
links on selected pages.
Your questions, comments, and suggestions are always welcome. What materials at
this site do you find most useful, if any? How do
the various pages look on your computer screen? Found a typo or spelling error?
Is something not working properly? Have a suggestion for a site to be listed on the Site Links pages?
Want to see something about a specific topic
not addressed here?
Sign the Guestbook or drop a line via e-mail at:
Site Statistics (1998 to 2009)
The Papyri Pages were begun on September 18, 1998 and
consisted of only a single page with a title. The first actual
content (images, text, and a single link) was added three days
later. Since then, there has been continued growth and
improvement, as new pages are added and old ones revised or
retired. There are currently over 125 pages on-line.
A Visitor Counter was added to the Welcome Page on February 2, 1999.
- On September 18, 1999, the count was 1,410 visitors.
- On January 1, 2000, the count was 3,784 visitors.
- On May 10, 2000, the visitor counter was reset to 0 from approx. 6,200 visitors.
- On September 18, 2000, the count was 785 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2000 was 6,974.
- Total visitors from Sept. 18, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2000 was 5,564.
- On January 1, 2001, the count was 2,163 visitors.
- On May 10, 2001, the visitor counter reached 3,600 visitors.
- On Sept. 18, 2001, the visitor counter reached 5,245 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2001 was 11,445.
- Total visitors from Sept. 18, 2000 to Sept. 18, 2001 was 4,460.
- On January 1, 2002, the count was 7,061 visitors.
- On May 10, 2002, the visitor counter reached 8,853 visitors.
- On Sept. 18, 2002, the visitor counter reached 9,931 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2001 was 16,131.
- Total visitors from Sept. 18, 2001 to Sept. 18, 2002 was 4,686.
- On January 1, 2003, the count was 11,174 visitors.
- On May 10, 2003, the visitor counter reached 12,560 visitors.
- On Sept. 18, 2003, the visitor counter reached 13,640 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2003 was 19,840.
- Total visitors from Sept. 18, 2002 to Sept. 18, 2003 was 3,709.
- On January 1, 2004, the count was 14,794 visitors.
- On May 10, 2004, the visitor counter reached 15,749 visitors.
- On Sept. 18, 2004, the visitor counter reached 16,336 visitors.
- On January 1, 2005, the count was 17,145 visitors.
- On Sept. 18, 2005, the visitor counter reached 18,518 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2005 was 24,718.
- Total visitors from Sept. 18, 2004 to Sept. 18, 2005 was 1,373.
- On Jan. 1, 2006 the visitor counter reached 19,323 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Jan 1, 2006 was 25,523.
- On June 1 (?), 2006, the visitor counter was reset to 0 from ? visitors.
- On Sept 18, 2006 the visitor counter reached 631 visitors.
- On Jan. 1, 2007 the visitor counter read 1,319 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Jan. 1, 2007 was over 26,842.
- On Sept 18, 2007 the visitor counter reached 3319 visitors.
- On Jan. 1, 2008 the visitor counter read 3802 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Jan. 1, 2007 was over 30,644.
- On Sept 18, 2008 the visitor counter reached 4,605 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2008 was over 35,249.
- On Jan 1, 2009 the visitor counter reached 5,123 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Jan. 1, 2009 was over 35,767.
- On Sept 18, 2009 the visitor counter reached 6,135 visitors.
- Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2009 was over 36,779.
Most of the major search engines list The Papyri Pages
under the keyword papyri and the site is consistently ranked among the top 10 to 20 Web Sites/Pages listed (position varies from week to week).
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do link to this site or know of a site which does, let us know. You can send an e-mail to
If you want to use images or other materials from the site, prior permission
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of Use/Copyright page for more details.
The UNESCO Libraries Portal for
International Preservation and Access Initiatives includes The Papyri Pages.
The New York Public Library selected The Papyri Pages to be included in their Best
of the Web listings in the category of Languages
& Linguistics - History
Site Rating / Content
The contents of this Web site are suitable for all ages. This site contains no profanities, violent materials or materials of an explicit nature.
This site is rated with (labeled with) the Internet Content Rating Association, an international, independent organization that empowers the public, especially parents, to make informed decisions about electronic media by means of the open and objective labeling of content.
This site is designed by, owned and maintained by Theodore Bernhardt (external link to LibraryThing profile and catalog). Theodore Bernhardt is a bank operations professional at a major eastern U.S. financial services company. This site has allowed him to combine his experience in Web page/site design and manuscript imaging with his long time interest in ancient manuscripts and the history and development of books and writing. Although, not an "expert," he is well read on the subject and has first hand experience working with ancient Egyptian papyri.
All presented material is
Copyright © 1999-2009 by Theodore Bernhardt. All Rights Reserved.