About This Site


The Papyri Pages focus on topics relating to ancient Egyptian papyri and the history and archaeology of "books" and writing in general.


The target audience includes anyone, from the seasoned scholar to the entheaustic amateur, with an interest in ancient manuscripts, palaeography and/or the history of books and writing in general.

Site Links

Over 300 Site Links are provided as a service to our visitors for convenience and informational/educational purposes.

The main focus of the listed sites is on those which provide access to images of ancient manuscripts (especially Egyptian papyri). These are supplemented by sites concerned with related topics including: Palaeography, Languages, Texts (ancient, classical, etc. in the original language or translation) and a few Archaeology/Egyptology sites. In addition, European and Asian manuscripts and printed books are also included. At present, epigraphy and cuneiform tablets and are not included.

The subject of ancient manuscripts and the history of books and writing in general, encompasses a huge range of topics and cuts across a wide variety of disciplines. We have tried to select links to sites which provide "useful" information and which closely relate to some aspect of manuscripts and/or books or provide links to related supplementary materials (languages, history, Egyptology, archaeology, etc.). Commercial sites have generally been avoided. Categorizing an individual site can sometimes be difficult, for many sites often contain a mixture of things. Generally, a site is only listed under one or two main categories.

Any theological and/or ideological viewpoints expressed by any of the listed external sites are solely those of the individual site. Listing of a site in the Site Links section does not constitute an endorsement or an approval by the Papyri Pages of any of the products, services or opinions of the organization, corporation or individual. The accuracy, legality and content of these external sites or subsequent links are not the responsibility of the Papyri Pages.

New Web sites pop-up all the time and old ones disappear or change addresses without warning.  Keeping all the links in the Site Links section current is a never-ending task.  Found a dead link or want to suggest a site for inclusion in the Site Links section of this site?   Send an e-mail to the papyripages@yahoo.com.

Currently, the Site Links section is undergoing a major renovation.  It is being being reorganized and expanded.


The items presented in the exhibit were selected from the Bernhardt collection, a small private collection of rare books, manuscripts, and antiquities. The papyri presented in this exhibit are the first papyri from a private collection and the sixth or seventh overall to made available on the World Wide Web.


The images presented in the exhibit were scanned from photographs or the actual objects. A Corel Hijaak Pro scanner and a Visioneer 4400 USB scanner have been used. Corel Hijaak Pro, PaperPort and MGI PhotoSuite III image manipulation software have been used in the editing and/or enhancement of the images. Some of the backgrounds were created by manipulating images using XV software. A few image files are fairly large (over 100 K) and take a while to load or during heavy traffic times don't always load at all. If you have problems, try reloading the page or visiting during an off hour.


At present, there are a limited number of brief articles relating to various aspects of the items presented in the exhibit. New and more detailed articles are currently in preparation, as well as, a selection of articles from other sources ( generally public domain materials). Articles from other sources will be presented in a manner as close to the original source material as possible. Any editing or omissions will be noted. The various articles, unless otherwise stated, were written by Theodore Bernhardt.

Bibliographical Citing

To cite the Papyri Pages Web site in a bibliography, list it with the URL, and the month, day and year you accessed it, as in the following example:

Bernhardt, Theodore (ed.), The Papyri Pages, http://members.triopod.com/~papyri/index.html, March 31, 2001.

To cite a specific article or page in a bibliography, list the name of the article or page, the name of the site with the specific page's URL, and the month, day and year you accessed it, as in the following example:
Bernhardt, Theodore, "The Origin and Manufacture of Papyrus," The Papyri Pages, http://members.tripod.com/~papyri/texts/papyrus.html , March 31, 2001.

Article Links

Article Links is a small changing selection of links to articles from various sites on the Internet focusing on topics relating to papyri, papyrology, and related subjects. The topics will change periodically.

What's New ?

For those who are really interested in all the changes, page additions and page deletions which occur to this site as it evolves, they are dutifully recorded. They can be accessed via the What's New? links on selected pages.


Your questions, comments, and suggestions are always welcome. What materials at this site do you find most useful, if any? How do the various pages look on your computer screen? Found a typo or spelling error? Is something not working properly? Have a suggestion for a site to be listed on the Site Links pages? Want to see something about a specific topic not addressed here?

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Site Statistics

The Papyri Pages were begun on September 18, 1998 and consisted of only a single page with a title. The first actual content (images, text, and a single link) was added three days later. Since then, there has been continued growth and improvement, as new pages are added and old ones revised or retired.

On September 18, 1999, there were 32 pages on-line.
On January 1, 2000, there were 42 pages on-line.
On September 18, 2000, there were 50 pages on-line.
On September 18, 2001, there were 76 pages on-line.
On September 18, 2002, there were pages on-line.

A Visitor Counter was added to the Welcome Page on February 2, 1999.
  • On September 18, 1999, the count was 1410 visitors.
  • On January 1, 2000, the count was 3784 visitors.
  • On May 10, 2000, the visitor counter was reset to 0 from approx. 6200 visitors.
  • On September 18, 2000, the count was 785 visitors.
    • Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2000 was 6974.
    • Total visitors from Sept. 18, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2000 was 5564.
  • On January 1, 2001, the count was 2163 visitors.
  • On May 10, 2001, the visitor counter reached 3600 visitors.
  • On Sept. 18, 2001, the visitor counter reached 5245 visitors.
    • Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2001 was 11,445.
    • Total visitors from Sept. 18, 2000 to Sept. 18, 2001 was 4460.
  • On January 1, 2002, the count was 7061 visitors.
  • On May 10, 2002, the visitor counter reached 8853 visitors.
  • On Sept. 18, 2002, the visitor counter reached 9931 visitors.
    • Total visitors from Feb. 2, 1999 to Sept. 18, 2001 was 16,131.
    • Total visitors from Sept. 18, 2001 to Sept. 18, 2002 was 4686.

  • This site receives an average of 30 page views a day.

  • Search Engines

    The Papyri Pages are listed in most of the major search engines under the keyword papyri and are consistently ranked among the top 10 to 20 Web Sites/Pages listed (position varies from week to week).

    Linking to this Site

    A number of Web sites include a link to the Papyri Pages.  Want to link to this site?  Prior permission is not required to link to any page of this site.  If you do link to this site or know of a site which does, let us know.  You can send an e-mail to papyripages@yahoo.com.

    The Papyri Pages are listed in the UNESCO Libraries Portal for International Preservation and Access Initiatives

    Site Rating / Content

    The contents of this Web site are suitable for all ages. This site contains no profanities, violent materials or materials of an explicit nature.

    This site is rated with (labeled with) the Internet Content Rating Association, an international, independent organization that empowers the public, especially parents, to make informed decisions about electronic media by means of the open and objective labeling of content.


    This site is owned and maintained by Theodore Bernhardt, a Computer Science student at a major east coast university with a long time interest in ancient manuscripts and the history and development of books and writing. Although, not an "expert," he is well read on the subject and has first hand experience working with ancient Egyptian papyri.

    Copyright © 1999-2002 by Theodore Bernhardt.   All Rights Reserved.

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